INSTRUCTIONS TO MMER AUTHORS
Papers submitted to the MMER should be devoted to non-mammalian aquatic organisms --principally marine fish, invertebrates, and plants--that are of particular value to biomedical research. The special characteristics of the organism or experimental system should be described, with detailed information on procedures, instrumentation, and protocols included wherever possible. Long-term practical utility to researchers is a major objective, rather than analysis and interpretation of the latest data on a system. (Research papers of the latter, more classical, type should generally be submitted to The Biological Bulletin,to appear in print.)
MMER papers are presented in levels of increasing detail. These levels are: (1) Title Page, (2) Table of Contents, (3) Body, and (4) Appendices. MMER papers already on-line will serve to illustrate the major elements and linkage features.
Initial step: Authors anticipating submission of a paper to the MMER should first contact the editors by e-mail (firstname.lastname@example.org) and then provide the following:
General writing suggestions: first prepare a detailed outline using descriptive headings and sub-headings. Then write the sections, carefully considering the sequence of topics and components, their appropriate level (body vs. appendices), their effective linkage, and their direct accessibility from the Table of Contents.
The instructions presented below contain the following headings:
1. Manuscripts (MMER). Manuscripts should be submitted in quadruplicate following the Instructions to Biological Bulletin authors (Section 1. Manuscripts; return here after reading!) with the following exception: major section headings used within the Body of the paper should begin with the Introduction and end with Acknowledgments, Literature Cited, Appendices, but the middle sections need not follow the traditional division into Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion. All headings and sub-headings within the Body of the paper must be numbered or lettered as follows: Roman numerals for all major section headings (e.g., I. Introduction, IV. Acknowledgments, V. Literature Cited, VI. Appendices); A., B., C. etc. for the first subheading level; 1., 2., 3. next; a., b., c., next. Upon acceptance, a copy of the word-processed paper on diskette (revised as necessary) will be required. Word or WordPerfect files are preferred.
2. Title page and Abstract (MMER). The title page should begin with the common and scientific names of the principal species, followed by names of the major discipline(s) addressed (e.g., Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Developmental Biology, Ecology, etc.). It should contain the manuscript title, author's names and appropriate addresses (institutional affiliations), a list of keywords, and footnotes listing present addresses, acknowledgments or contribution numbers, and explanation of unusual abbreviations.
An abstract of no more than 200 words should be typed on a separate page.
3. Figures (MMER).
Dimensions: The dimensions of a typical computer monitor (~14 inch diagonal) should be kept in mind when preparing figures for electronic publication. Figures should be submitted at the same size or only slightly larger than they are to appear on-screen. We recommend that figures be no larger than 6 inches wide by 6 inches high (15 X 15 cm) if possible. If content is clearly visible, smaller figures are preferable because they permit viewing of both the Figure and its Legend without excessive scrolling by the reader.
Mounting, Labeling: Each Figure should be submitted mounted on a separate sheet of white paper or white posterboard for eventual digital scanning. Lettering and labeling should be of a size easily readable on-screen. When labeling figures, the ratio of the largest to the smallest letter or number and of the thickest to the thinnest line should not exceed l : l.5. Designating letters and scale bars should be affixed directly to the figures, but DO NOT AFFIX FIGURE NUMBERS. All figure numbers should be assigned in consecutive order, with no distinction between text and plate figures. Figures referred to in the text should be numbered first; figures appearing only in Appendices (if any) should be numbered subsequently. The Figure number, first author's name, and an arrow indicating orientation should appear on the reverse side of all figures.
Explanatory matter generally should be included in legends, although axes should always be identified on graphs. FIGURE LEGENDS SHOULD NOT CONTAIN MAGNIFICATION FACTORS (i.e., do NOT include a magnification factor such as X 1,000). All micrographs should contain a magnification bar affixed either within the figure or in a white area directly beneath it, for which the length (e.g., 1 µm) can be given on the figure or in the legend. It is also helpful to readers to indicate (with a bar) the size of any whole organisms shown.
Types of Figures: Figures can be prepared as line cuts, halftones, or full-color photographs or illustrations. The use of color is encouraged, as it does not incur added expense and enhances clarity. Line cuts should be glossy photographic reproductions or drawn in black ink on white paper. Colored photographs should be standard glossy prints. Use of Slides: Authors desiring to use colored slides as illustrations should submit commercial prints made from the slides, labeled as described above. Upon acceptance of the paper, the editors may request submission of the original slides for digital scanning if warranted for improved clarity.
Digital Art: The Biological Bulletin will accept figures submitted in electronic form: see guidelines:
Previously Published Figures: Authors who wish to include (or adapt) figures previously published elsewhere must obtain a letter from the publisher granting permission for electronic publication. A sample permission request letter is provided on-line. Copies of signed permission letters must accompany submitted manuscripts.
4. Tables, footnotes, figure legends, etc. (MMER). Authors should follow the style in a recent issue of The Biological Bulletin in preparing table headings, figure legends, and the like. Tables, with their headings and footnotes, should be typed on separate sheets, numbered with consecutive Roman numerals, and placed after the Literature Cited. All MMER Figure legends should begin with the Figure number and a short descriptive title (to be used for rapid access). Figure legends should contain enough information to make the figure intelligible separate from the text. As noted above, figure legends should NOT contain magnification factors (e.g., do NOT include X 1,000). Legends should be typed double spaced, with consecutive Arabic numbers, on a separate sheet at the end of the paper. Footnotes should be limited to authors' current addresses and explanation of unusual abbreviations, and all such footnotes should appear on the title page. Footnotes are not permitted in the body of the text, but important ancillary material that would otherwise constitute a footnote can be included as an Appendix. Acknowledgments or contribution numbers should be put into the Acknowledgments section.
5. Literature Cited (MMER): In the text, literature should be cited as described in Instructions to Biological Bulletin authors (Section 5. Literature cited; return here after reading!).
6. Body vs. Appendices (MMER): The Body of the paper should be limited to the most interesting material, presented in moderate detail. Linked Appendices should be used to provide step-by-step procedures, recipes, secondary-level figures, detailed descriptions of apparatus, comprehensive Literature surveys, or ancillary material of any kind. There is essentially no limit to length of an Appendix, and no restriction on the nature of its contents. Appendices should be numbered consecutively (Arabic).
7. Questions? Please contact the MMER Editors (e-mail: email@example.com) for further information and assistance.